An Introduction to Genetics Analysis

1. Genetics and the Organism

Introduction

Genes as determinants of the inherent properties of species

Genetic variation

Methodologies used in genetics

Genes, the environment, and the organism

Summary

Concept Map

Problems

2 . Patterns of Inheritance

Introduction

Mendel’s experiments

Using genetic ratios

Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance

Human genetics

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

3. Chromosomal Basis of Heredity

Introduction

Historical development of the chromosome theory

Mendelian genetics in eukaryotic life cycles

Topography of the chromosome set

Three-dimensional structure of chromosomes

Sequence organization

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

4. Gene Interaction

Introduction

From genes to phenotypes

A diagnostic test for alleles

Interactions between the alleles of one gene

Gene interaction and modified dihybrid ratios

Gene interaction in petal color of foxgloves

Gene interaction in coat color of mammals

Penetrance and expressivity

Chi-square test

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

5. Basic Eukaryotic Chromosome Mapping

Introduction

The discovery of linkage

Recombination

Linkage symbolism

Linkage of genes on the X chromosome

Linkage maps

Three-point testcross

Interference

Calculating recombinant frequencies from selfed dihybrids

Examples of linkage maps

Chi-square test for linkage

Mapping with molecular markers

Linkage mapping by recombination in humans

Nature of crossing-over

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

6. Specialized Eukaryotic Chromosome Mapping Techniques

Introduction

Accurate calculation of large map distances

Analysis of single meioses

Mapping genes by mitotic segregation and recombination

Mapping by in situ hybridization

Mapping human genes by using human-rodent somatic cell hybrids

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

7. Gene Transfer in Bacteria and Their Viruses

Introduction

Working with microorganisms

Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial transformation

Bacteriophage genetics

Transduction

Chromosome mapping

Bacterial gene transfer in review

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

8. The Structure and Replication of DNA

Introduction

DNA: The genetic material

Structure of DNA

Replication of DNA

Mechanism of DNA replication

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

9. Genetics of DNA Function

Introduction

How genes work

Gene-protein relations

Genetic fine structure

Mutational sites

Complementation

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

10 . Molecular Biology of Gene Function

Introduction

Properties of RNA

Transcription

Transcription and RNA polymerase

Eukaryotic RNA

Translation

Genetic code

Protein synthesis

Universality of genetic information transfer

Functional division of labor in the gene set

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

11. Regulation of Gene Transcription

Introduction

Basic control circuits

Discovery of the lac system: negative control

Catabolite repression of the lac operon: positive control

Positive and negative control

Dual positive and negative control: the arabinose operon

Metabolic pathways

Additional examples of control: attenuation

Lambda phage: a complex of operons

Transcription: an overview of gene regulation in eukaryotes

Regulation of transcription factors

Epigenetic inheritance

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

12. Recombinant DNA Technology

Introduction

Making recombinant DNA

Cloning a specific gene

Using cloned DNA

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problem

Problems

13. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology

Introduction

In vitro mutagenesis

RFLP mapping

Reverse genetics

Expressing eukaryotic genes in bacteria

Recombinant DNA technology in eukaryotes

Gene therapy

Using recombinant DNA to detect disease alleles directly

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

14. Genomics

Introduction

Genomics: an overview

Genome projects: practical considerations

Structural genomics

Functional genomics

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

15. Gene Mutation

Introduction

How DNA changes affect phenotype

Somatic versus germinal mutation

Mutant types

Occurrence of mutations

Selective systems

Mutation induction

Mutation and cancer

Mutagens in genetic dissection

Mutation breeding

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

16. Mechanisms of Gene Mutation

Introduction

Molecular basis of gene mutations

Spontaneous mutations

Induced mutations

Reversion analysis

Relation between mutagens and carcinogens

Biological repair mechanisms

Repair defects and human diseases

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problem

Problems

17. Chromosome Mutation I: Changes in Chromosome Structure

Introduction

Origin of changes in chromosome structure

Deletions

Duplications

Inversions

Translocations

Diagnosis of rearrangements by tetrad analysis

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

18. Chromosome Mutation II: Changes in Chromosome Number

Introduction

Aberrant euploidy

Aneuploidy

Mechanisms of gene imbalance

Chromosome mechanics in plant breeding

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

19. Mechanisms of Recombination

Introduction

Breakage and reunion of DNA molecules

Chiasmata: the crossover points

Genetic results leading to recombination models

Holliday model

Enzymatic mechanism of recombination

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

20. Transposable Genetic Elements

Introduction

Controlling elements in maize

Bacterial insertion sequences

Prokaryotic transposons

Mechanism of transposition in prokaryotes

Review of transposable elements in prokaryotes

Molecular nature of transposable elements in eukaryotes

Review of transposable elements in eukaryotes

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problem

Problems

21. Extranuclear Genes

Introduction

Origin of extranuclear genes

Structure of organelle chromosomes

Organelle mutations

Inheritance of organelle genes and mutations

Recombination of extranuclear DNA

Cytoplasmic male sterility

Mitochondria and aging

Summary

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

22. Cancer as a Genetic Disease

Introduction

Cancer and the control of cell number: an overview

Cell proliferation machinery

Machinery for programmed cell death

Controlling the cell-proliferation and death machinery

Cancer: the genetics of aberrant cell control

Cancer research in the genomic analysis era

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

23. Developmental Genetics

Introduction

Central themes of developmental genetics

Gene regulation at levels other than transcription initiation: examples

Binary fate decisions: pathways of sex determination

Drosophila sex determination: every cell for itself

Sex determination in mammals: coordinated control by the endocrine system

Binary fate decisions: the germ line versus the soma

Forming complex pattern: establishing positional information

Forming complex pattern: utilizing positional information to establish cell fates

Additional aspects of pattern formation

The many parallels in vertebrate and insect pattern formation

Do the lessons of animal development apply to plants?

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

24. Population Genetics

Introduction

Variation and its modulation

Effect of sexual reproduction on variation

Sources of variation

Selection

Balanced polymorphism

Artificial selection

Random events

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

25. Quantitative Genetics

Introduction

Some basic statistical notions

Genotypes and phenotypic distribution

Norm of reaction and phenotypic distribution

Determining norms of reaction

Heritability of a trait

Quantifying heritability

Locating the genes

More on analyzing variance

Summary

Concept Map

Statistical Appendix

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

26. Evolutionary Genetics

Introduction

A synthesis of forces: variation and divergence of populations

Multiple adaptive peaks

Heritability of variation

Observed variation within and between populations

Process of speciation

Origin of new genes

Rate of molecular evolution

Summary

Concept Map

Chapter Integration Problem

Solved Problems

Problems

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